Saturday, August 24, 2019
Domestic Architecture - Essay Example The general plan of the houses, is very similar to the buildings of the Tudor period One of the distinguishing features of this style is that the second story projects out slightly over the first. The corners of the house are decorated with little suspended pendant-like ornaments. Both these features are typical of the medieval fashion, where the second floor would project out, and a little into the street. The website also says that it would appear that buildings so fashioned were considered more 'formal' and 'fancier'. Yet another distinguishing feature of this style is the asymmetry of the house As the article, 'Colonial Architecture' points out the Parson Capen House, was among the more modest dwellings of that time. The front door of the Parson Capen house is not quite in the center of the wall, but slightly to the right, thus asymmetrical. Also like other colonial structures, the second floor projects out. As the article states the house, "is typical of the two-story New England house of overlapping weatherboards. Northern Arizona University tells us that it was in France: that Jefferson learned of Roman architecture and its symbolic association with Greek democracy. With this inspiration, he began reworking the house he had begun in 1769, upon a small mountain, and continued to tear down and re-build it till 1809. The Wikipedia free encyclopedia mentions that Monticello in French means 'little mountain' Jefferson was inspired by the works of Andrea Palladio particularly the Villa Rotunda says the article, 'Classic(al) Revival / Jeffersonian Classicism / Roman Classicism'. Prof Paradis says that the identifying features of this style include a dentil cornice emphasized with wide band of trim, porches, temple-front entryway, and square or rounded columns, usually Doric. Another interesting feature at Monticello is the dome. This style of architecture competed with the Federal style, which was more prevalent and dominant at the time, and which drew its origins from the 'Adamesque' (Georgian) style of architecture. states the article 'Federal Style.' Another feature of this style and period is that windows have a number of small panes of glass because it was difficult to make large pieces of glass. There might be 12, 8, or 6 panes in both the top and bottom window sashes. These features can all be seen in Monticello. Another website with information on Jefferson titled '1768 to 1782 Thomas Jefferson, architect Near Charlottesville, Virginia, USA' says that, "he combined the great European traditions of Palladio with American domesticity." The difference from Palladio, the article says, lay in aspects he introduced to the Monticello like the "long horizontal wings, underground service rooms, and all sorts of "modern" gadgets. " William Low House, Charlottesville, Virginia. (1887) Frank Lloyd Wright 428 Oak Park, Illinois (1889) Shingle style. "A shingled home does not stand on ceremony. It
Friday, August 23, 2019
Dior J`adore Perfume - Essay Example As JÃ¢â¬â¢adore is a luxury item, it adds to the personality of women customers. The main features and attributes of the product highlighted by the company are: femininity, sophistication, and emotion. The other features are its everlasting fragrance, better quality, innovation, and its brand name. The company offers free shipment for a particular range of JÃ¢â¬â¢adore products. Tester facility is provided to the customers, to test the perfume as a demo. They also offer attractive sale offers on particular occasions like Christmas. During Christmas season Dior offers combination like lotion with perfume. Women, who have high income, are the main consumers of JÃ¢â¬â¢adore. The products come in models like J'Adore L'Absolu, J'Adore Anniversaire En Or, J'Adore L'or, J'Adore L'eau. Customers are ready to spend more time in search of the product, because once they use it they always go for the same product, and they identify themselves with the picture of feminity in the perfume. They never go for a different or substitute product, because of its unique fragrance and quality. The product has been in the market for the last ten years. Flimsy bottle caps sometimes with decorated gold ribbon, brilliant, transparent and unique crystal bottle design, and attractive letter design of the word JÃ¢â¬â¢adore are the distinctive features of the product packing. They also use luxurious, clean, contemporary image of celebrities on the package. Dior follows the pricing strategy of competitive pricing, ie; they set the price according to the prices set by their competitors. They also adopt premium pricing strategy for particular product range, to highlight the productÃ¢â¬â¢s exclusiveness. The product faces competition from Chanel, Guerlain, Cartier, Lancome, Prada, Givenchy, Calvin Klein and Angel de Thierry Mugler. The perfume industry faces tight competition. Chanel is one of the well established companies in France, which always offers high quality perfumes, at high prices. But the prices of JÃ¢â¬â¢adore and its competitors are almost similar. So there will not be much difference for the customers in making payment for the product. JÃ¢â¬â¢adore has a USP (Unique Selling Proposition), driven by emotions, which make it impossible to compare with the products of its competitors. The long lasting fragrances, the prestige that the brand name of JÃ¢â¬â¢adore gives when women apply it, the confidence she feels when it a dds to her personality makes the product a unique one, which is very difficult for the competitors to imitate. The targeted customers are women who earn high income. Once they like the product, they
Thursday, August 22, 2019
The earth and its people chapter 17 Essay 1. Why were death rates among Amerindians so high? P. 432 2. What was the most deadly of the epidemics in the Americas? P. 432 3. What (3) New World (Americas) foods revolutionized Old World (Europe, Africa, Asia) agriculture? P. 432 4. What did the horse do for the native peoples of the Americas? P. 433-4 5. What country occupied most of the Brazilian coast? P. 434 6. How did Amerindian people respond to the imposed Christianity? P. 434 7. What kind of powers did the highest-ranking Spanish officials in the colonies have? Why? P. 435 8. What regions were included in the Viceroy of Spain? P. 435 9. What was the primary agent by which European language and culture was transmitted to Brazil and Spanish America? P. 435 10. What was the richest institution in the Spanish colonies? P. 437 11. What commodities dominated the economic development of colonial Latin America? P. 437 12. What was the Ã¢â¬Å"mitaÃ¢â¬ ? p. 439 13. What did sugar plantations in Brazil depend on? P. 439 14. Why did sugar planters prefer African slaves to Amerindian slaves? P. 439 15. What were Hidalgos? P. 440 16. What forms did slave resistance take? P. 444 17. What was manumission and how did a slave achieve that? P. 444 18. What were castas? Give examples. 444-5 19. How were the governments and economic systems of English and French colonies different than those of the Spanish and Portuguese? Why? 445 20. Were the English successful in their first efforts to establish colonies in the Americas? Give an example. 445 21. How much of JamestownÃ¢â¬â¢s population died within the first 15 years? Why? P. 446 22. How did the fur trade and hunting affect the Amerindian people? P. 446 23. What was indigo grown around Charleston used for? P. 447 24. What was the Stono Rebellion of 1739? P. 447 25. What are 3 ways that immigration to the Chesapeake differed from that of Massachusetts? P. 447 26. Merchants from what European nation first colonized Manhattan Island in 1624? P. 449 27. What did French settlements emphasize? P. 450 28. Who were the enemies of the Huron and Algonquin, who then became enemies of the French? P. 450 29. What were 3 things Jesuits did in an effort to convert native people to Christianity in French Canada? P. 450 30. What was the result, politically, of the French and Indian War (Seven YearsÃ¢â¬â¢ War)? p. 452 31. What was the purpose of the English Navigation Acts? p. 454 Free Response Focus Questions: Answer these questions in a 5-7 sentence paragraph. In your own words. Do not simply copy from the book and memorize the response. Know it. Support your response with plenty of facts. Understand where events fall historically (global context, cause/effect, etc) 1. Considering the Columbian Exchange and colonization, what were the major impacts on the peoples of the Americas? 2. What role does religion play in European settlement of the Americas? Be specific as to Spanish, Portuguese, French, and British uses of Christianity as a tool of colonization. 3. The chapter describes several different types of forced labor practices. Describe each practice and explain why each one was preferred in different locations. Compare/Contrast: Write a well-developed thesis statement which clearly addresses similarities and differences. 4. Compare and contrast Latin American with North American colonies from 1530-1770.
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Medical Advancements during the Industrial Revolution Medical Advancements in the industrial revolution Compared with the other great time periods, the industrial revolution in particular was known to have had one of the largest impacts on the world. Some of the largest being advancements in technology leading to breakthroughs in the field of medicine. It was during the 18th century that scientists were able to discover cures for many previously incurable diseases through the use and application of these Ã¢â¬Å"newÃ¢â¬ technologies. The government of the time was also forced to improve living conditions in order to create better sanitation, which in turn also helped to lower the risk of disease and raise life expectancy. Disease accounted for many deaths in industrial cities during the Industrial Revolution. With a chronic lack of hygiene, little knowledge of sanitary care and no knowledge as to what caused diseases (let alone cure them), diseases such as cholera, typhoid and typhus could be lethal. As the cities became more populated, the problem worsened. Prior to advancements in medicine there had been little-to-no sanitation, and accordingly people living during this time had a very short life expectancy. Also, there was little understanding around how and why disease was constantly spreading. One of the major contributing factors was the housing conditions which the majority of the population dwelled: they were overcrowded, meaning that one small room could (and often did) house up to ten people. Houses did not have access to clean water, the water was contaminated with sewage, bacteria and other pathogens. With the majority of doctors knowledge being based upon traditional remedies that had lit tle evidence, and there being limited diagnostic tools or understanding, this also did not help the health of the population. Before and during the industrial revolution there was a common belief that disease was caused by Ã¢â¬Å"bad smellsÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"invisible poisonous gas clouds.Ã¢â¬ With increasing numbers of people within cities, diseases and ill-health was on the rise, which promoted scientists to begin searching for scientific reasons behind diseases and thus deducting how to cure them. Throughout the industrial revolution there have been accounts of poor living conditions coupled with bad building management systems, mass siltation and poor hygiene. FRIEDRICH ENGELS was known to have said In one of these courts there stands directly at the entrance, at the end of the covered passage, a privy without a door, so dirty that the inhabitants can pass into and out of the court only by passing through foul pools of stagnant urine and excrement. (Cotton times, 2012).This quote from his memoir shows the extent of pollution and the mismanagement of waste disposal. This also shows just how filth stricken and unhygienic the streets where. This abundance of pollution and waste was defined aided the spread of disease. Until the occurrence such medical advancements surgery and other medical practices remained a task frequently done by barbers merely because they possessed the correct tools. The lack of any such pain killers, along with the continuing social disapproval due to such mortalities, created a continuous cycle where few people underwent surgery thus leading to limited knowledge and research done in the field. Therefore surgery and medicine in general progressed very little throughout the middle ages and all of that changed in the industrial revolution due to revolutionary medical advancements. It all began with the discovery of the properties of chloroform and ether in the 1850Ã¢â¬â¢s by numerous scientist, thus making surgery effectively painless, though there was still a significant amount of pain after the effects of the anaesthetic wore off. On screen is a chart that shows the evolution of surgery and medicine in general. Even knowing this the number of people willing to undertake surgical procedures multiplied in the following years. This caused the increase of the death of patients post operation presumably due to bacterial infection. In the decades prior such a small quantity of people were willing to undergo surgery and the patients that did most likely died on the operating table therefore bacterial infection was relatively rare and thus their causes such as operating conditions, unclean surgical instruments as well general poor hygiene where remained unexplored. After countless deaths and a plethora of research came the answer: germs In the 1850s Louis Pasture make a significant breakthrough with his revolutionary germ theory of disease. He discovered the microorganisms were causing decay because they were constantly spreading. He concluded that these microorganisms where the cause of many diseases. He carried out his experiments by collecting air in flasks and determining which ones contained more bacteria. The flasks that had more bacteria were noted as containing air from places that had been very overpopulated and dirty. He extended his theory to explain the causes of many deadly diseases such as anthrax, cholera as well as TB. Now scientist could cure sicknesses based on the discoveries made by Pasture. Without Louis Pasteur the field of microbiology would not have existed. His contributions where crucial to the development of the Industrial Revolution and his discoveries are still relevant to this day. They have acted as building blocks for further discoveries and started a general trend in medicine. His co ntributions include, instituting changes in medical practices, to minimize the spread of disease, discovering that weak forms of disease could be used as an immunisation and finally he introduced the concept of viruses to the medical world. Because of his glowing accolades many regarded him as the Ã¢â¬Å"father of microbiologyÃ¢â¬ . Personally I believe that he deserves such title because without his work many of modern medical discoveries would not have occurred but I do accredit him solely because I believe that the advancements made in the industrial revolution where a group effort and that many scientist contributed to its occurrence. Although his research was neglected by the medical community for several years due to his unorthodox methods of practise, Edward Jenner revolutionised the study of medicine forever by creating a cure for Smallpox which has changed the practise of the prevention of many diseases with vaccines today saving countless lives. He built upon the work done by Louis pasture and created a vaccine for smallpox by inoculating his patients with cow pox. It was successful and became mandatory in Britain in 1852. With economic growth living standards were able to improve. Britain was able to turn the field of public health into a socio-medical vital to community health. Soon enough the new chapter of the revolution included focussing on the public health movement and supporting the poor who were unable to pay for medical treatment. So the Public Health Act was passed, making sanitary improvements in the slums and stationed medical officers in every district in England. Infant mortality rates where decreasing and life expectancy was finally flourishing. After several medical findings such as relief from typhoid and surgery started to become widely practised. In order to have surgery patients need to go under anaesthesia. To create anaesthetics mixed numerous chemicals and experimented to find out what effects they would have on humans. Humphrey Davies realised by experimentation that laughing gas was one factor that could reduce pain. Since this wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t the most effective method therefore ether was used due to its ability to put patients to sleep. In 1847 James Simpson was the first to discover chloroformÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to render patients unconscious. With this medical breakthrough surgery was able to become a quicker and a more efficient process. A problem with early surgery was that surgeons did not poses antiseptics this caused infections in patients and many deaths. Joseph Lister discovered that spraying patientÃ¢â¬â¢s wounds with carbolic acid spray would kill microbes thus preventing the occurrence of infection and allowing the patient to heal correctly without infection. His spray was eventually used in public places as a sanitary precaution but some individuals at the time reported to having reactions to this acid. In 1895 Wilhelm RÃ ¶ntgen discovered the use of x-rays in medical imaging, this brought great advancement to the medical world and surgery itself. Without such a discovery the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s medical history would not have been the same. All of these inventions and progressions in medical technology have paved the way for a successful medical world as we know it. The machines, drugs, surgeries have all originated from the time of the industrial revolution. Of course they have progressed and evolved over the years and will continue to evolve as time goes on. If there was never a revolution such as this one the world would have never seen change. Our lives and lives to come will forever be different due to the medical advancements in the industrial revolution. The industrial revolution was a turning point in history because its medical advancements improved health in the medical word, life expectancy and the spread of disease. There are many points that be argued as the most important part of the industrial revolution and turning points in history. Although many historians like to say that the advancements in medicine where not as crucial to the occurrence of mass industrialisation as agriculture, per se. While I acknowledge their points and am in no way saying that the changes in agriculture was not important but I believe that the medical advancements and the change in legislation due to these advances where crucial to the continuation and sustainability of the industrial revolution. Because, a healthy workforce is a productive workforce. Without a healthy workforce industrialisation could not have occurred and workplace based injuries would not have been able to be treated and in the case of the agricultural revolution While some people today like to focus on the work of just one person as Ã¢â¬Å"theÃ¢â¬ breakthrough which influenced the remainder of the Industrial Revolution, and as such shaped the medical field as we know it today, however, I disagree. I do not think it is possible to name just one man as the founder of modern medicine. Each of the scientists that I have named had unique contributions to the field, each independent of the other. Without any one of these, there would still be disease and ill-health throughout the world. To name just one man would be an injustice, thus I acknowledge each of these breakthrough scientists for their contributions and efforts to enable myself to live the safe and healthy life that I do today. I believe the most productive work that aided humanity has been done in collaboration throughout history. I believe that these advancements where a sheer coincidence and the correct number of scientist gathered at the right time under the correct circumstances lured by economic opportunities. The medical advancements in the industrial revolution caused the worldwide improvement in life expectancy and public health. That world wild phenomenon had a domino effect throughout the following years and lead us to where we are today. Without the industrial revolutions medical advancements we would not be in the position we are in today with public health and life expectancy.
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Implementation of New Procurement Methods in India The construction industry in India is complex, challenging and unique. Selecting appropriate procurement method is a critical feature. In India even today traditional procurement methods are used. The options of adapting new procurement methods are open but there are various challenges in implementing them. This study will identify the barriers and difficulties which restrict the implementation of new procurement methods in India. The literature review investigated characteristics of new procurement methods. It highlighted the nature and types of projects in India. It emphasizes on structures and trends in the Indian construction Industry. It gives an insight on procurement methods used in developed economies. The chapter on characterization focuses on issues specific to Indian construction Industry such as demographics, socio-economic concerns, economical advantages, rapid growth of the industry etc. It highlights the typical procurement methods used for different types of projects in India and the regulations and administration within the construction Industry. This study gives us the nature and character of the Indian Construction Industry. Further, the study analyzes various issues, and draws attention to challenges in implementing new procurement methods. In the light of the characterization, issues and challenges this study identifies and concludes with the barriers and difficulties which restrict the implementation of new procurement methods. The worldwide construction industry includes projects of dramatically different types, size and complexity and requires extensive professional and trade skills (Groak, 1994). A construction project can refer to any building activity that includes building, repair, erection, demolition, maintenance, land clearing, earth moving, excavating, trenching, digging, boring, drilling, blasting, concreting, installation etc. (Housing Grants, Construction and Regeneration Act, 1996). All these activities involve a considerable number of goods and services as well as large number of transactions to support a project. Most significantly, goods and services should be procured at the best possible cost to meet the needs in terms of quality, quantity, time and location (Weeley, 2010). However, construction industry is a significant contributor to a nations economy. Internationally, construction industry accounts for approximately 8-10 percent of gross domestic product GDP. Currently, in India construction industry accounts 8 percent of GDP. Furthermore, main construction sectors in India are Infrastructure, housing and commercial developments. In India by 2014 the second phase of infrastructure development will be started. This will provide additional boost to the construction industry. Owing to numerous projects the significance of procurement will be very important. Considerably, a well procured construction project is completed in time with desirable quality and within estimated cost. Internationally, plentiful construction procurement methods are practiced. Worldwide effectively used, key procurement methods are Design and Build, Management Contracting, Construction Management, Build Operate Transfer, Public Private Partnerships, Strategic Partnership, Joint ventures etc. Generally, in developed economies procurement methods such as Design and Build, Construction Management and Management Contracting are widely used, due to the maturity of the industry. However, in India mainly traditional construction procurement methods are practiced. Construction industry consists of large number of scattered small firms. The professionals prefer to operate within their silos. As a result, they remain in their comfort zone of using traditional methods. Nowadays trends are changing particularly in infrastructure and large scale projects management. This is due to the increased number, size of projects and capital invested in the projects. Mainly the upcoming procurement methods are Build Operate and Transfer and Public Private Partnerships. However, these are restricted to only a few projects. Still a large number of projects are carried out in a traditional manner. Major obstacle to implement new procurement methods are large population (1.2 billion approximately) large inclusive demand, large demand spread across the country, many small projects, traditional outlook of construction professionals, segregated industry, numerous small firms, enormous unskilled work force. Other barriers include considerable number of regional languages, excess availability of skilled professionals in one part of the country and scarcity in the other parts, no standard terms of contracts, different legislation in different states, local suppliers, mon opoly of manufactures in a region etc. As a consequence it is increasingly important to explore the reasons why new procurement methods cannot be implemented in India. Some key interdependent and inter-linked issues to be investigated are economic issues, management issues, technical issues, legal issues and cultural issues. Research outcomes will be inferred by careful observation of challenges and study of difficulties for implementation of new procurement methods. 1.2 Research Aim The aim of the research is to identify the barriers and difficulties that restrict the implementation of new procurement methods in India. 1.3 Research Objectives The research objectives will include the following 1) To investigate the issues, namely economic issues, management issues, legal issues and cultural issues which act as barriers for the implementation of new procurement methods in India. 2) To investigate procurement methods such as Design and Build, Management Contracting and Construction Management and relate it to the traditional Indian procurement method, to understand the challenges of the implementation of new procurement methods in India. 3) Identifying the barriers which act as hindrances for implementation of new procurement methods in the Indian construction industry. 1.4 Scope of Study This study of identification of barriers and difficulties that restrict the implementation of new procurement methods is confined to the Indian construction industry. The data is collected from secondary sources. The main sources were U.N views on India, U.K Trade and Investment and other secondary data. It outlines various difficulties and barriers which are already present in the Indian construction industry which in turn affects the implementation of new procurement methods. This study restricts itself in identifying difficulties and barriers from the nature and character of the Indian Construction Industry. As moving into detail of all issues was not possible, it explores largely economic issues, management issues, legal issues and cultural issues and finds the barriers which prevent the implementation of new procurement methods. This study will also mainly look into procurement methods such as Design and Build, Management Contracting and Construction Management and compare it with the traditional Indian procurement method to find the challenges in implementation of new procurement methods. 1.5 Structure of Dissertation Chapter 1) This chapter gives an introduction to the topic and gives the idea about how the study will be carried out. It gives an idea of a fast developing Indian construction Industry and the need to adapt new procurement methods. It states the research aim, objectives and scope of study and also discusses the structure of the dissertation Chapter 2) This chapter reviews the literature associated with the study. It looks into new procurement methods, projects in India, Indian construction industry and important factors affecting the construction industry in India. Chapter 3) This chapter describes the research methodology adapted within the scope of the dissertation. Secondary data, semi-structured interviews with the experts and academicians were employed to address the objectives. Chapter 4) This chapter characterizes India. It describes the nature and the character of the Indian construction industry. It gives an insight into the Indian construction Industry and its approaches. Chapter 5) This chapter looks at the barriers and the difficulties that restrict implementation of new procurement methods in India. It identifies various issues and challenges in implementation of new procurement methods in India. It looks at the present construction Industry in India and its characterization and identifies the barriers and difficulties that restrict implementation of new procurement methods in India. Chapter 6) This chapter presents the conclusions and direction for further research in this area. CHAPTER 2:Ã LITERATURE REVIEW 2.0 Procurement Methods Introduction Around the world procurement methods are developed through the years as per needs. The selection of the most appropriate procurement method is critical for both the client and other project participants as it is an important factor that contributes to the overall clients satisfaction and project success. This selection will be dependent upon a number of factors such as cost, time and quality which are widely considered as being the most fundamental criteria for clients seeking to achieve their end product at the highest quality, at the lowest cost and in the shortest time (Hackett et al. 2007). The type of procurement method adopted mainly depends upon the type of project, type of ownership, nature of construction industry in that particular country and the maturity of the industry. The selection of the procurement path is much more than simply establishing a contractual relationship (Newcombe, 1992), inspite of the continuing search for maximum value for money. In the developed economies such as USA, UK, Australia, Sweden etc. procurement methods such as Design and Build, Management Contracting and Construction Management are used from a long time. This is because the construction industry is developed, the projects are needed to be delivered efficiently and the clients demand the delivery of projects within budget and in least possible time. In this dissertation the study is limited to procurement methods such as Design and Build, Management Contracting and Construction Management. 2.1 Design and Build Design-build is a method to deliver a project in which the design and construction services are contracted by a single entity known as the design-builder or design-build contractor. Design-build relies on a single point of responsibility contract and is used to minimize risks for the project owner and to reduce the delivery schedule by overlapping the design phase and construction phase of a project. Design and Build with its single point responsibility carries the clearest contractual remedies for the clients because the DB contractor will be responsible for all of the work on the project, regardless of the nature of the fault (John Murdoch and Will Hughes 2007). The Design-Build Institute of America (DBIA) takes the position that design-build can be led by a contractor, a designer, a developer or a joint venture, as long as a the design-build entity holds a single contract for both design and construction. The main contractor takes responsibility for both design and construction and will use either in-house designers or employ consultants to carry out the design. Most of the construction work will be carried out by specialist or sub-contractors. The contractor tenders against a client brief and will often follow an initial concept design prepared by consultants appointed to advise the client. The design will be developed by the contractor and the works will be completed, usually for a fixed price. Tendering is more expensive so it carries more risk for the contractor than the traditional approach. This is because the contractor has to develop an outline design and a detailed price. Tender lists will probably be shorter than for traditional contracts. However, the client commits to the cost of construction, as well as the cost of design, much earlier than with the traditional approach. Changes made by the client during design can be expensive, because they affect the whole of the Design-Build contract, rather than just the design team costs. This strategy is a low-risk option for clients who wish to minimize their exposure to the risks of overspend delays or design failure. However, the exposure to risk will increase where the design phase is rushed, where unreasonable time targets are set or where the tender documents are not fully completed. 2.1.1 Characteristics of Design and Build It provides single point of responsibility so that in event of a failure the contractor is solely responsible. There is no ambiguity between the designer and the contractor. The clients interests are safeguarded in this respect. When the client adopts Design and Build method he knows his total financial commitment early in a project. The client has direct contact with the contractor. This improves the lines of communication and enables the contractor to respond and adapt to the clients needs more promptly. In Design and Build contractor is responsible for design, planning and control. This gives him a better control over the activities and can concurrently carry out the activities which are not generally possible using traditional procurement methods. The contractor can purchase, obtain planning permission and arrange his finance simultaneously which helps him to give a better deal to the client. He can also benefit himself and the client by making use of proprietary modular designs which reduces design time and time required for approval. The contractor can start the work as soon as the approvals are obtained and sufficient information regarding the site operations is available. The design does not need to be finalized before some, at least, of the work may be commenced. The Design and Build proposals ensure economical tenders and alternate design concepts which can benefit the client. The nature of Design and Build procurement system promotes the creation of integrated design and construction team. In some countries using Design and Build system relaxes the architects code of practice, which encourages them to become full partners in design and build firms. The closer involvement of architects leads to more aesthetically pleasing buildings and leads to designs which have a greater appreciation. By using Design and Build method time and cost savings are achieved, which benefits the client. The total project completion period is also reduced. Design and Build reduces the employers financing charges, inflation has less effect and the building is operational sooner which commercially produces an early return on the capital invested. The Design and Build method facilitates novation of design with the consultants to the contractor which provides advantages to the client. The advantage of Design and Build is that the contractor has some control over the design and is able to introduce components, materials and systems which are beneficial and which he knows are more economical to construct. 2.1.2 Critique of Design and Build Design and Build is not suitable for complex projects. The traditional method of construction procurement dissociates the designers from the contractors interests, design-build does not. The contractor decides on the design issues as well as issues related to cost, profits and time exigencies, which may be the matter of concern in some situations. The client is required to commit to a concept design at an early stage and often before the detailed designs is completed. There is no design overview unless separate consultants are appointed. And there is no one appointed from clients side to manage the works or act as clients agent. If client changes the scope of the project, this can be expensive. Design-build does not make use of competitive bidding where prospective builders bid on the same design. In Design and Build the criteria to select contractor is subjective and difficult to evaluate and to justify later. 2.2 Management Contracting In management contracting the client appoints the designers and a management contractor separately and pays the contractor a fee for managing the construction works. Payment to the management contractor is done on the basis of cost of the works packages plus agreed fees. The main benefits of management contracting are the time required for design and construction is shorter. There is an early involvement of managing contractor during design phase, in which his expertise can be used. The management contractor has the responsibility to manage the project. The sub-contractors are appointed by the management contractor, thus reducing the day to day administrative responsibilities of the client. The management contractor has major role in directing the project. The lines of communications are improved. As there is a direct relation between the management contractor and the client changes and variations can be done in a project. The main advantage is that the project is completed in time as the management contractor manages the works. Because of this the client gets possession quickly and the return on investment starts. The client normally appoints the management contractor to take an active role in the project at an early stage and the client can benefit from the contractors expertise. The overall design is the responsibility of the clients consultants, but the management contractor is normally responsible for defining packages of work and then for managing the carrying out of those work packages through separate trades or works contracts. The management contractor can sometimes not be employed to undertake the work but is employed to manage the process. All the work is subcontracted to works contractors who are directly employed by the management contractor. The client usually needs to be given the opportunity to approve the terms and conditions of the trades or works contracts before the packages are subcontracted. The management contract will usually include both a pre-construction phase and the construction phase. The management contractor is responsible for the administration and operation of the works contractors. However, the management contractor is not liable for the consequences of any default by a works contractor so long as the management contractor has complied with the particular requirements of the management contract. 2.2.1 Characteristics of Management Contracting Clients and contractors adapt this system once they gain experience, which suggests that it has merits. It is generally recognized that its adoption requires mutual trust. The management contractor is appointed much earlier. He is able to become a member of design team and contribute his expertise and mainly his management expertise. Management Contracting is an effective method for the client retaining control of the design whilst drawing on the experience of a construction specialist as part of the Professional Team. The Management Contractor is paid a fee for its services as well as enters into contract with the client for work packages, generally separate works contractors are appointed to carry out work packages under the management contractor. This type of arrangement tends to be used on complex projects where early input from a construction specialist is required. Decisions regarding appointment of subcontractors are made jointly by designers and management contractor thus making use of wider experience. Specialists contractors and subcontractors compete at second stage ensuring economical tenders which benefits the client. Lines of communication are shorter between management contractor and client than with the traditional procurement method. The client has direct control over the management contractor, who is the main contractor, so that the project is completed in a better way and in shorter time. The total project completion period is reduced by parallel working. A reduced project completion period produces a corresponding reduction in financing charges and interim payments to the contractors. Inflation has less effect. The client takes the delivery of the building more quickly and obtains returns on his investment more quickly. The main functions of the management contractor may include acting as principal contractor, cost planning and cost control, consenting for works contracts, coordinating and managing works contracts, coordinating commissioning, collating pre construction information and construction phase plan, monitoring key performances and managing the site. 2.2.2 Critique of Management Contracting The client is usually given an approximate estimate of the final project cost by the management contractor early in the project life but the client does not know the final project cost until the last sub contract is entered into. On other projects he is given a guaranteed maximum cost. The architect may have less time to develop the design because he is under greater pressure from the client and contractor. The design may suffer as a result. The client should provide a good design brief as the design will not be completed until the client has committed significant resources to the project. The strategy relies on quality committed team or it may just become a mere reporting system in some cases. Management contracting is not suitable for inexperienced clients. It is less suitable for clients wanting to pass the complete risk to the contractors. Specialist contractors frequently prefer to be in contract with client rather than the management contractor appointed by the client because interim payments are usually made promptly when paid directly. 2.3 Construction Management In construction management the client appoints a construction manager for a fee to manage, programme and coordinate the design and construction activities. The client does not allocate risk and responsibility to a single main contractor. Construction work is carried out by trade contractors through direct contracts with the client for various packages. The client takes the risk. The construction manager supervises the construction process and coordinates the design team. The construction manager has no contractual links with the design team and contractors. He only provides professional expertise without assuming financial risks. On appointment the construction manager takes over any preliminary scheduling and costing information and draw up detail programme accordingly. In this method the client should have administrative or project management staff with the ability to assess the recommendation of construction manager and take actions. Adapting construction management reduces the time required for the project. This occurs because the contract strategy, construction and design can overlap. A construction manager should have a good track record in cost forecasting and cost management, as the time can be reduced but the price certainty is not achieved unless the design and construction have advanced to the extent that all the work packages have been let. This method puts so much emphasis on the role of client, if the client is experienced, with the help of construction manager he can control the project effectively. The clients continue to use construction management to their advantage, for example, the cultivation of direct, long-term relationships with trade contractors helps to secure many of the benefits more often associated with partnering. Furthermore, by employing a construction manager who is able to focus on the interests of the project, rather than on its own risk management, the client can be confident that its project objectives will be shared by the rest of the team. Construction management is distinguished by the influence of the clients and construction managers management and leadership skills on the success of the project. By adapting construction management method the client can have greater influence over the project and can have more flexibility over the contractor selection and so on. 2.3.1 Characteristics of Construction Management Construction management offers relative time saving potential for overall project duration due to overlapping of various activities. The roles, risks and relationships are clear for all the participants during most of the situations. In some situations changes in design can be accommodated later than some other strategies, without paying a premium. In construction management method the client has direct contracts with the contractors and pays them directly. This helps the contractors as they are paid promptly and there is evidence that this results in lower prices because of improved cash flow certainty. The client has direct involvement in the project as compared to most of the traditional methods. As the client is directly involved he is enabled to make prompt decisions which can be implemented without delay. This also makes possible a prompt response by the client to unforeseen site problems and also makes possible a prompt response by the contractor to changes required by the client. In this type the construction manager acts as an agent of the contractor. This benefits the contractor in managing the works. This also excludes the client for keeping his own staff for overlooking the issues which are looked by the construction manager. The central role of the construction manager is managing the project and providing administrative support to the employer. In this there is no single point of responsibility related to the delivery of the project. 2.3.2 Critique of Construction Management In construction management price certainty is not achieved until the last works packages have been let. Budgeting primarily depends heavily on design team estimates. The client should be pro-active and must provide a quality design brief to the design team in order to complete the design. The strategy relies upon the client selecting a good quality and committed team. In construction management the client has to manage and administer many contracts as there is no single contractor, all the works contracts are directly between the works contractors and the client. The client has to manage coordinate with the design team appropriately or else there increased likelihood of design change. There is a high degree of client ownership of risks associated with design including impacts of late or incomplete and uncoordinated design. In construction management the client has exposure to performance risk and exposure to consequential loss associated with trade contractor default. In construction management method there is increased administration role for the client. Construction manager owes duty of care liability only. The client is at the center of management and requires decision making capabilities. The client has to rely on management capability of construction manager. 2.4 Indian Construction Industry and Economy Indian economy has been growing from last two decades at an unprecedented rate. This is mainly because of industrialization and service sector growth. The main reason for Indias growth is its huge internal demand. In recent years particularly after the global recession in 2008 the Indian economy has shown signs of slowing down. In 2011-12 due to the current global economic scenario India found itself in the heart of managing growth and stabilizing prices. The Indian economy is grown by 6.9 per cent in 2011-12, after having grown at the rate of 8.4 per cent in each of the two preceding years. This indicates a slowdown compared not just to the previous two years but 2003 to 2011 (except 2008-09). At the same time, sight must not be lost of the fact that, by any cross country comparison, India remains among the front-runners. The Gross Domestic Product (nominal) of India is $ 1.848 trillion (Indiabudget, 2011). The Gross Domestic Product (Purchasing power parity) of India is $ 4.457 trillion (Indiabudget, 2011). The annual expenditure budget of India is Rs.1490925.29 Crores (Indiabudget, 2011). Over the years, more than half of the expenditure budget is spent on civil engineering, construction and related activities. The construction industry sets in motion the process of economical growth in the country, investment in this sector contributes 6.5% of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth. The construction industry in India is large and scattered. Today in India there is a massive demand in housing and infrastructure. The construction industry is the second largest industry of the country after agriculture. It makes a significant contribution to the national economy and provides employment to large number of people. The use of various new technologies and deployment of project management strategies have started to gain importance. In its path of advancement, the industry has to overcome a number of challenges. However, the industry is still faced with some major challenges, including housing, disaster resistant construction, water management and mass transportation. Recent experiences of several new mega-projects and large demand are clear indicators that the industry is poised for a bright future. It is the second homecoming of the construction profession to the forefront amongst all professions in the country. Every Re.1 investment in the construction industry causes an Rs.0.80 increment in GDP as against Rs.0.20 and Rs.0.14 in the fields of agriculture and manufacturing industry, respectively. Statistics over the period have shown that compared to other sectors, this sector of economic activity generally creates 4.7 times increase in incomes and 7.76 times increase in employment generation potentiality (Economicsurvey, 2011). Despite of the challenges in the construction industry there will be a continuous rise of the construction sector in the country, with over 4 Crore persons employed in it. 2.5 Projects in India The construction industry in India is large and diverse. In India majority of the projects are procured locally and are small in size. In recent years there is a demand for large projects such as large housing schemes, rural and urban and infrastructure projects but still there are large numbers of small projects. The projects include residential complexes, shopping centers, industrial development projects, urban roads, rural roads, water supply systems, sewerage systems and infrastructure projects such as highways, power stations, rapid mass transport systems, airports up gradation and new and ports. These projects are not concentrated in one part of the country, they are spread over the length and the breadth of the country. Except some few high profile and prestigious projects majority of the projects are due to local needs and demands. In India the metropolitan cities are experiencing a rapid growth of 25-30% in residential construction activity every year and the other non-major cities are experiencing 15-25%. The top 15 cities in India account for 18% of the total construction activity in India with Mumbai and Bangalore leading the pack. In India cities are classified as Tier I, Tier II, Tier III and Tier IV cities. Tier I cities consist of Bangalore, Chennai, Delhi, Hyderabad, Kolkata and Mumbai. Tier II cities consist of comparatively smaller cities as Ahmedabad, Jaipur, Kanpur, Pune, Surat etc. Tier III cities consists of even smaller cities and large towns such as Indore, Cochin, Jamshedpur etc. Tier IV consist of smaller towns. Approximately there are 35 cities in India with a po
Monday, August 19, 2019
Adopting a child is an experience that promises to bring great joy as it changes a couple or individualÃ¢â¬â¢s life forever. But what happens if the mother of that child wants to endorse their child? Those are the issues that many adopting parents and birth-right mothers are facing today. Many biological mothers want their child back. There are many concerns for adopting parents to know- that there is the possibly that the birth mother may file for the child. As a birth mother or the adopting parent one must realize consequences that could lay ahead. The legal and social transfer of all parental right, responsibilities, and roles from one parent or parents, usually biological, to a nonbiological parent or parents is the definition of adoption. In such a transfer, adoptive parents accept the same rights and responsibilities as the childÃ¢â¬â¢s birth parents would have had, while the child becomes a member of a family that provides the social, emotional, and physical nurturing that children needs to grow up to be healthy, functioning adults. But there are some legal issues or opinions that can lead to a halting backfire in the adoption process. But, as the biological parent(s) and adopting parent(s), they must be ready for the quickly, approaching pros and cons. Throughout the adoption journey, the gardein must be prepared and know what is best for them and their child. There are many positive feedbacks to adoption. Children are in need of adoption because some birth parents are unabl...
The Impact of Technology Upon Education As the years go on, technology has become such a necessity to everyday life in the average personÃ¢â¬â¢s life. Whether you live here, there, or anywhere, technology is apparent and has become such an integral part of everyday life to the point that we cannot imagine life without it. Technology is used in both the private and the public life of every person. In private lives we have our computers, our microwaves, our palm pilots, ovens, TVs, cell phones, VCRs, DVD players and much, much more. In our public lives we have checkout scanners, security cameras, security alarms, car alarms, and so much more. What many of us do not realize is that another benefit of technology is helpful with the growing rate of inclusion. There are so many products out on the market today to help disabled people to integrate with the mainstream and have the same benefits as we do. One of the most interesting pieces of technology that I have found for disabled people is iCommunicator. This product is mainly used for the deaf and hard of hearing so that they would not always have to have a translator. It gives them more independence in the workplace or at school. It also has been used with children as young as preschoolers to determine the literacy development and as an early diagnosis for hearing loss in young children. This program converts speech to text, speech to video sign language, speech to computer-generated voice, text to computer-generated voice or video sign language. This program has a speech -to-text translation rate of a 90% greater accuracy in less time than its predecessors.  Its remarkable features include auto save, menus, on screen buttons, a vocabulary library that includes m... ...udents. The children whether they be blind, deaf, learning disabled etc now have ways to connect with other people and will be able to fit into the rest of society much easier and finding a job when he or she gets older will not be such a big problem. So many of the original obstacles have been overcome due to the increase of technology. Technology has become a great asset to teaching others and aiding people to do things they had never thought possible, whether it be a blind or deaf person getting an office job, or getting an Ã¢â¬ËAÃ¢â¬â¢ if you were a learning disabled student. I never knew that there were so many products available on the common market to help those people to integrate with the mainstream population both in school and at the workplace. Technology has definitely become a positive tool for not only the mainstream public but for the disabled as well.